Glossary

ABCDEFGHILMNOPRSTW

A

Aerosol:
uspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or anoth
Amines:

Derivatives of ammonia used as solvents in the post combustion CO2 capture process to absorb CO2 from the flue gas stream

Atmosphere:

The layer of gases surrounding the earth; the gases are mainly nitrogen (78%) andoxygen (around 21%)

Atmospheric carbon dioxide:

The quantity of CO2 present in the atmosphere

B

Bio - CCS:

A large scale technology intended to combine sustainable biomassconversion with CO2 Capture and Storage.

Biodegradable:

A substance or objectcapable of being decomposed by bacteria or other living organisms

Bioenergy:

Energy that is generated from organic matter, known as biomass

Biogenic carbon:

Carbon stored in biological sources such as plants, trees, and soil

Biomass:

Biological material derived from living or recently living organisms used as a fuel, especially in the generation of electricity

C

Capture efficiency:

The fraction of CO2 separated from the gas stream of a source

Carbon capture:

The removal of CO2 from a process stream or from the atmosphere to produce a highly pure stream of CO2 amenable for conversion or storage

Carbon dioxide (CO2):

A colourless, odourless gas formed by carbon and oxygen to be found in the atmosphere and underground

Carbon sink:

Anything natural or manufactured that absorbs more carbon than it releases

Carbon storage:

A process for retaining captured CO2 so that it does not reach the atmosphere

Carbon transport:

The process of moving captured CO2 through a pipeline, or by other means, e.g. road, rail or shipping, from its source to a suitable storage site

Carbon utilisation:

A range of technologies that use or convert captured CO2 to make valuable fuels, feedstocks, chemicals, building materials or other products

Carbon-intensive fuel:

Fuel sources containing a high quantity of carbon

CCS:

Carbon Capture and Storage

CCUS:

Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage

Circular economy:

An economic system aimed at eliminating waste and the continual use of additional resources. Circular systems employ reuse, sharing, repair, refurbishment, remanufacturing and recycling to create a close-loop system, minimising the use of resource inputs and the creation of waste, pollution and carbon emissions

Circulating fluidised bed (CFB):

A classification of furnaces that uses high velocity air to “fluidise” a combustible material to improve the combustion reaction. Unburnt fuel is recirculated back into the furnace to ensure complete combustion

Climate:

The long-term average of weather in a region, typically averaged over a period of 30 years

Climate change:

A change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods

Climate change mitigation:

Any actions taken to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term global warming and its related effects

CO2 capture technologies:

Any technology designed to either remove CO2 from the atmosphere or to prevent the release of CO2 generated through power generation and industrial processes

CO2 emissions:

The release of CO2 into the atmosphere over a specified area and period of time

CO2 equivalent (CO2e):

A measure used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases on the basis of their global-warming potential (GWP), by converting amounts of other gases to the equivalent amount of CO2 with the same global warming potential

Combustion impurities:

Unwanted chemicals contained within the combustion gas as a result of contaminated fuel, e.g. sulphur

Commercial waste:

Waste from premises used mainly for the purpose commercial activity, e.g. trade, business or sport

Compostable:

Waste materials capable of undergoing biological decomposition at a consistent rate within a compost site, breaking down into CO2, water, inorganic compounds and biomass

COP (Conference of the Parties):

Annual conferences held in the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

D

Decarbonisation:

The removal of or reduction in the carbon intensity of a process or an entire economy

E

Emission abatement:

A reduction in the amount, degree or intensity of emissions like CO2

Energy recovery:

The conversion of non-recyclable waste materials into usable heat, electricity, or fuel

F

Feedstock:

Raw material that supplies or fuels a machine or industrial process
 

Flue gas:

The gas that exits via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator. It often refers to the combustion exhaust gas produced at power plants

Food waste:

Uneaten food and food preparation wastes from residences and commercial establishments, including grocery stores, restaurants, produce stands, institutional cafeterias and kitchens and industrial sources

Fossil fuel:

Buried combustible geologic deposits of organic materials, formed from decayed plants and animals that have been converted to crude oil, coal, natural gas, or heavy oils by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earth’s crust over hundreds of millions of years

G

Gasification:

A thermo-chemical process that converts carbon-containing materials, such as coal, petroleum coke (petcoke), biomass, waste, or other materials, with little or no oxygen present and at high temperatures, into a synthesis gas (syngas)

Geological storage:

Injection of CO2 into suitable deep rock formations where it can remain stored

Global warming:

The increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation

Greenhouse effect:

A naturally occurring process that aids in heating the Earth's surface and atmosphere. It results from the fact that certain atmospheric gases, such as CO2, water vapour, and methane, are able to absorb longwave radiation emitted from the Earth's surface

Greenhouse gas (GHG):

A gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation, e.g. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)

H

Hazardous waste:

Waste that poses a substantial or potential threat to public health or the environment

Hydrocarbon:

An organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon

I

Incineration:

A waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials

Industrial waste:

The waste produced by industrial activity which includes any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories, industries, mills, and mining operations

Inorganic waste:

waste composed of material other than plant or animal matter, such as sand, dust, glass, and many synthetics

L

Landfill:

The final disposal of solid waste by placing it in a controlled fashion in a place intended to be permanent

M

Membrane:

In CCS, thin sheets of material that can separate CO2 from other gases acting like a sieve

Methane:

A colourless, odourless flammable gas which is the main constituent of natural gas. It is the simplest member of the alkane series of hydrocarbons

Mixed waste:

Unsorted materials that have been discarded into the waste stream

Municipal waste:

"Regular" waste from non-industrial sources, such as residential homes, restaurants, retail centres, and office buildings

N

Natural gas:

A flammable gas, consisting largely of methane and other hydrocarbons, occurring naturally underground and used as fuel

Negative emissions:

The permanent removal of CO2 from Earth’s atmosphere

Net efficiency:

The ratio of energy input to useful energy output

O

Organic waste:

Waste materials derived from living organisms, such as food, garden and lawn clippings and wood waste, which can be recycled and turned into valuable products such as compost or renewable energy

Oxy-firing technologies:

The process of burning a fuel using pure oxygen instead of air as the primary oxidant. Since the nitrogen component of air is not heated, fuel consumption is reduced, and higher flame temperatures are possible

Oxygen enrichment:

A technology for increasing the efficiency of combustion by increasing the concentration of oxygen in the air to fuel mixture

P

Pilot:

A pilot study, project, test or experiment is a small scale preliminary study conducted in order to evaluate feasibilitydurationcost, adverse events, and improve upon the study design prior to performance of a full-scale test

Polluted:

Contaminated with harmful, poisonous or unwanted substance(s)

Post-combustion capture:

Separating CO2 from other waste gases after a fuel is burned

Pre-combustion capture:

The removal of CO2 from fuels prior to a fuel being burned

R

Recyclable waste:

Items that can be reprocessed into feedstock for new products. Common examples are paper, glass, aluminium, corrugated cardboard, and plastic containers

Renewable energy generation:

Any energy generation process in which the fuel originates from a source that is naturally replenished on a human timescale

Residual waste:

The material that remains after a waste treatment process has taken place

Resource recovery:

The extraction and utilisation of materials and energy from wastes

Retrofit:

A modification of existing equipment to upgrade and incorporate changes after the initial installation. In CCS, this might be retrofitting a power station for CO2 capture, or retrofitting an oil platform for CO2 injection

S

Solid recovered fuel (SRF):

The processing solid waste, typically consisting of combustible components of municipal solid waste to extract useful fuel

Solvent:

In CCS, a liquid that can absorb CO2

Source:

In CCS, any process, mechanism or activity which releases greenhouse gases to the atmosphere

Synergy:

A mutually advantageous conjunction or compatibility of processes or businesses

Syngas:

An abbreviation for synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, CO2 and H. It is produced by gasification of carbon-containing fuel by reaction with steam or oxygen

T

Technology Readiness Level (TRL):

A type of measurement system used to assess the maturity level of a particular technology. Each technology project is evaluated against the parameters for each technology level and is then assigned a TRL rating based on the project’s progress. There are nine technology readiness levels. TRL 1 is the lowest and TRL 9 is the highest

Thermally treated:

For waste, any treatment technology that involves high temperatures in the processing of the waste feedstock

Trace metals:

Metals normally present in small but measurable amounts in animal and plant cells and tissues and that are a necessary part of nutrition and physiology

W

Waste stream:

The total flow of waste from a community, region, or facility

Waste-to-Energy (WtE):

Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) is the process of generating energy in the form of electricity and/or heat from the primary treatment of waste, or the processing of waste into a fuel source

Work Package (WP):

Units of related tasks which are used to break projects up into smaller chunks